The hottest smart green leads China to become a mi

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Smart + green leads China to become a mining power

"realizing modernization is the strategic goal of China's development in the 21st century. In the process of striving for the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, mining modernization is in a very prominent position, whether from the perspective of ensuring the sustainable supply of raw materials or from the perspective of energy conservation and emission reduction." Said Yu Runcang, an academician of the Chinese Academy of engineering

on October 16, the "2018 annual meeting of mining frontier and informatization intelligent technology" and the "First International Forum on Intelligent Mining" jointly hosted by China Nonferrous Metals Society and China ENFI Engineering Technology Co., Ltd. were held in Beijing Yulong international hotel. Academician Yu Runcang said in his speech that intelligent green mining projects should be built to lead mining powers to strive for mining power

China is far from a mining power.

"for China, the most fundamental sign of realizing mining modernization is to develop from a mining power to a mining power, and realize the sustainable development of resource economy environment coordination. From the national level, China is undoubtedly a mining power." Yu Runcang said

"in terms of resources, China is one of the few countries in the world with a relatively complete variety of mineral resources. At present, more than 200 kinds of mineral resources have been found in the world. So far, 173 kinds of mineral resources have been found in China, including 159 kinds of proved reserves." Yu Runcang said that in terms of production and consumption, the metal production and consumption of bulk consumption have ranked first in the world for many consecutive years

although China is a large mining country, it is not a mining power. According to academician Runcang, the development of metal mines in China is facing many difficulties

first of all, the mineral resource endowment of bulk consumption is poor. Due to the characteristics of China's geological structure and geological evolution history, the resource characteristics of more lean ores, more symbiotic ores and more refractory ores have formed, which makes our production costs uncompetitive and does not have the say in market pricing, and the per capita existing resources are only 58% of the global average

it is learned that at present, China is still leading the global consumption of mineral resources. The metal minerals whose consumption accounts for more than 40% of the world include iron, copper, aluminum, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, manganese, tin, molybdenum, lithium, cobalt, vanadium, chromium, nickel, etc. According to the prediction of the global mineral resources strategic research center, except for iron ore, manganese and zinc, the peak consumption of most mineral products is about 2020-2025, or will continue to grow

"even if it reaches the peak, the consumption level will remain high for a long time, so the degree of external dependence will continue to rise; moreover, the" going out "has not yet formed a resource base to ensure supply." Yu Runcang believes that compared with those multinational large mining enterprises, the competitiveness of China's mining enterprises is still very fragile

in addition, "the deterioration of the ecological environment brought about by mining enterprises has not been fundamentally improved; the frequent occurrence of safety accidents is worrying; what is more prominent is that we are facing increasingly complex deep well mining and lack due preparation in terms of concept, technology and management." Yu Runcang said

according to relevant information, at present, there are 126 mines with a mining depth of more than 1000 meters in the world, including 15 in China (see chart). According to incomplete statistics, in the next 10 years, more than one-third of China's metal mines will be mined to a depth of 1000 meters or more. At present, the Western deep level gold mine in South Africa has been mined to 4800 meters, which is currently the deepest mining mine in the world, and China's deep mining has just begun

"deep shaft mining will encounter a series of technical problems such as rock burst, high temperature heat damage, shaft lifting, ventilation, drainage, support, filling process links caused by high ground stress concentration, especially the third type of deep shaft mines, which need us to deal with." Academician Yu Runcang said that mining development is moving towards overcoming these difficulties

building intelligent mines

"since computers, large trackless equipment, advanced communication technology, rock mechanics research achievements in the last century have entered the mining field, which has significantly changed the face of the mine, modern high-tech has been leading and promoting the development of the mining industry." Yu Runcang said that the innovation of engineering is the optimization and system integration of these high and new technologies, such as big data, IOT, cloud computing, artificial intelligence, sensing technology, automatic positioning and navigation technology, virtual reality technology, etc

Yu Runcang said that from an engineering point of view, the construction of intelligent mines needs to cover the following aspects: (1) all fixed installation equipment in the mine can realize unattended and remote monitoring, including ventilation on demand; (2) The mining process is automatically completed by the intelligent equipment operated by the personnel in the central control room; (3) Automatic operation of logistics system refers to rail and trackless transportation system, shaft lifting system and belt transportation system; (4) The mine wide information management and control system, including the equipment preventive maintenance system, finally realizes the so-called "Mining Office"

"the automation of mining process is relatively more difficult to implement, and the specific schemes for different mining methods will vary, and the degree of difficulty is also different." Yu Runcang said that in general, in addition to the specific plan to adapt to the characteristics of different mining methods, to jointly solve the key common problems, we need to innovate and transform the general mining preparation system in the past to meet the needs of automated mining and on-demand ventilation

"moreover, at present, the mining work of many domestic mines is outsourced, and the degree of mechanization is generally not high, let alone automation." Yu Runcang therefore suggested that, first of all, demonstration projects can be established at the deep development level of new mines and production mines, and gradually promoted

according to Runcang, this is the key to completely solve the hidden dangers of mine safety, improve efficiency, save energy consumption, reduce costs, and enhance the competitiveness of enterprises, and it is the direction of mining development

building ecological mining engineering

"ecological mining engineering is a branch of ecological engineering discipline founded in the middle of last century, and it is the actual connotation of the so-called green mine." Yu Runcang said that the ecological mining project is to establish an artificial ecological balance when human development of mineral resources causes damage to the natural ecological balance, that is, human beings consciously and rationally rely on laws, policies and regulations to arrange the project deployment and practice that can meet human needs for mineral resources and the carrying capacity of ecological and environmental systems, so as to achieve the goal of sustainable development

"for new mines, local investigation of the ecological environment must be carried out before the development of mineral resources, which is the basis for the construction of ecological mining projects." Yu Runcang said that its contents mainly include: (1) evaluation of the current situation of ambient air quality; (2) Investigation and evaluation of surface water environmental quality; (3) What the groundwater will share for you this time is the current situation monitoring and analysis of the structure and operation method of the concrete pressure testing machine; (4) Investigation of ecosystem types and characteristics; (5) Investigation and analysis of floristic characteristics; (6) Investigation and classification evaluation of wildlife resources and aquatic organisms; (7) Investigation on the current situation of soil environmental quality; (8) Investigation on the current situation of soil wetting and water and soil loss; (9) Land use status survey; (10) Radioactivity survey; (11) Overall evaluation of the current situation of ecological environment. On the basis of this evaluation, the theory of ecological mining engineering is established

Yu Runcang said that the theory of ecological mining engineering requires that in the whole process of mining project planning, project approval, design, construction, production and pit closure, ecological environment protection, environmental governance and ecological restoration should be integrated into the organic elements of the project, so as to ensure the capital investment in each stage and implement the social development in each stage

Yu Runcang said that in order to change environmental protection actions from non economic behavior to economic behavior, and from end-to-end treatment to source control, we should first study the possibility of realizing waste free mining, and then study the possible ways of tailings recycling, and truly achieve effective supervision and strict rewards and punishments, so as to truly coordinate economic development and ecological balance

implement the global mineral resources strategy

"throughout the industrialization history of developed countries, no country fully relies on its own domestic standard block to achieve industrialization within one year from the date of calibration. Therefore, the implementation of the global mineral resources strategy has become a natural trend." Yu Runcang said, however, the current monopoly pattern of the global mineral resources and mineral products market has been formed. We must also focus on improving the competitiveness of enterprises when implementing the global mineral resources strategy

Yu Runcang said that from the study of the development strategies of several large multinational mining companies, it can be seen that mastering resources, especially high-quality resources, and improving the storage (volume)/production (volume) ratio are the basic competitiveness of mining enterprises, and these enterprises operate a variety of minerals to adapt to market changes. In contrast, there is still a big gap between China's mining enterprises

China's global mineral resources strategy should include domestic and foreign parts

in addition to increasing investment in exploration, China should base itself on national economic security to complete resource reserves, mine capacity reserves, strategic mineral products reserves and occupy the global commanding heights of emerging key minerals (mainly rare, rare and scattered, rare earth metals and rare and precious metals)

externally, we should strictly implement the policy of mutual benefit and win-win, complement each other's advantages, develop together, carefully conduct risk assessment, do as the Romans do, effectively integrate into local society, and establish a resource supply base. Since China's Sinosteel Corporation and Australia's Hammersley iron mine entered the 2017 year in 1987, the company has taken the first step in the joint venture development of Chana iron mine. Over the past 30 years, China has experienced several different stages of development, and has achieved considerable results, accumulated experience, and also had profound lessons

"first of all, it is worth noting that the risk assessment in the project opportunity research stage, including resource risk assessment, construction condition assessment, economic risk assessment, policy risk assessment and political risk assessment, all of which contain many specific contents. Only with careful risk assessment can we formulate countermeasures to resist risks." Yu Runcang said that it was a pity that Chinese enterprises did not take this crucial issue seriously

"an important aspect of mining enterprises' going out 'is investment orientation." Yu Runcang said that international M & A is a shortcut for enterprises to grow rapidly, enhance competitiveness, and obtain advantageous resources, advanced technology and advanced management experience. During the international financial crisis, it provides good opportunities for international M & A, and its difficulty mainly lies in obtaining the understanding of the host country and later integration

"less equity participation and more underwriting is a classic strategy for Japan to realize industrialization in an extremely scarce mineral resources country. This investment orientation has the advantages of less investment, low risk, high return, little impact of market fluctuations, and sharing interests and risks with major shareholders, which is very helpful to solve the urgent need of resource shortage." Yu Runcang said that Chinese enterprises also have examples in this regard. Many enterprises that started from grass-roots exploration also have such practices, which are less invested and take a long time, and the results are uncertain. In short, the investment orientation depends on the strength, financing ability and management level of the enterprise

according to Yu Runcang, the "the Belt and Road" initiative provides a good opportunity for China to implement the global mineral resources strategy. The countries along the "the Belt and Road" are rich in mineral resources, strong consumer demand, active investment and trading, and take mining as a leading industry to promote the cooperation between China and the countries along the belt and road

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